Diseases & Illness

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EDUCATE. Find out more about genetic illness transfer between people and the chances of you sharing a genetic disease with your family.

diseases-illness

A genetic disorder is a disease that is caused by a change, or mutation, in an individual’s DNA sequence. The condition is an illness caused by changes in a person’s DNA. Such a condition can be transmitted genetically in a process called genetic illness transfer. 

A mutation causes dominant genetic diseases in one copy of a gene. If a parent has a dominant genetic disease, then each of that person’s children has a chance of acquiring that disease through genetic illness transfer.

The current genetics definition refers to the study and manipulation of heredity and variation in living organisms. Certain genetic conditions may affect fertility or may be treated through a variety of in vitro fertilization (IVF) Mexico. In general, these genetic abnormalities fall into two categories: Single gene defects and chromosomal abnormalities.            

Genetics is pervasive in twenty-first-century science and it includes reproductive screening technologies like preimplantation genetic screening.

How Genetic Illness Transfer Works?

Genetic illness transfer can happen through several patterns. These include: 

  • Through a mutation of a dominant illness in a single copy of a gene. One great example is Huntington disease. DNA tests are available for some dominant genetic disorders. 
  • Recessive genetic diseases. This happens when both parents possess or are carriers of a similar recessive disease. The chances of an offspring inheriting the trait from both parents vary, however, with a 25% chance that the child will inherit the disease from both parents, 50% chance that it will inherit the disease from one parent, and a 25% chance that the child will not be a carrier or have the disease. 
  • Genetic diseases that manifest themselves based on the sex of the individual affect males and females differently. For example, diseases such as hemophilia and color-blindness are related to the gene mutations on the X or Y chromosomes. Therefore, they tend to only affect one gender. 
  • All pregnancies run a risk of developing chromosomal abnormalities. At times, such risks have everything to do with the parent. For example, their age or even extra or missing chromosomes. Other chromosomal abnormalities relate to how they are structured and organized. Such abnormalities can be passed from parent to child in and can cause multiple unexplained miscarriages, apparent infertility, or congenital disabilities.

The Role of Genetic Testing 

A genetic test is designed to identify mutations or changes in DNA. Genetic testing is useful in many areas of medicine and can positively influence the kind of medical care you or your family members receive. For example, simple genetic testing can determine whether you have a genetic condition such as Fragile X. It can also give your doctor information about your risk of developing cancer. 

Here is an array of genetics examples to explore. 

  • Genetic recombination or DNA recombination involves the exchange of genetic material either between multiple chromosomes or between different regions of the same chromosome.
  • Genetic variation is the distinction of DNA sequences between individuals within a population. 
  • Genetic linkage is the tendency of DNA sequences that are close together on a chromosome to be inherited together during the meiosis phase of sexual reproduction. Genetic linkage maps can be used to identify the location of genes responsible for traits and diseases.

For example, genetics of eye color is influenced by more than one gene. There is evidence that as many as 16 different genes could be responsible for eye color in humans. However, the primary two genes linked with eye color variation are OCA2 and HERC2, and both are localized in Chromosome 15.

A genetics counselor can help make sure that you are the right person in your family to get a genetic test, you’re getting the proper genetic analysis, and that you understand your results, including:

  • Determining whether you possess an inherited genetic condition even before the symptoms start to manifest. 
  • Learning whether a genetic condition will affect the current or future pregnancy 
  • To diagnose a genetic condition that is already manifesting symptoms in you and your child. 
  • To understand and guide your cancer prevention or treatment plan

Genetic Diseases and Disorders

Genetic diseases are any disease caused by an abnormality in the genetic makeup of an individual. The genetic defect can range from minuscule to major; from a discrete mutation in a single base in the DNA of a single gene to a chromosomal abnormality involving the entire chromosome or set of chromosomes. 

Some people inherit genetic disorders from the parents, while acquired changes or mutations in a preexisting gene or group of genes cause other genetic diseases. 

Genetic illness trafer can influence the transmission of different diseases from one person to the next. These diseases include: 

Cancer

Cancer is a genetic disease. It causes specific changes to genes that control the way our cells function, especially how they grow and divide.

Breast cancer is an example of a genetically transferred illness. About 5 to 10% of breast cancers are thought to be hereditary, caused by abnormal genes passed from parent to child. 

Autism

Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is one of the most prevalent neurodevelopmental disorders, affecting an estimated 1 in 59 children. ASD is highly genetically heterogeneous and may be caused by both inheritable and de novo gene variations.   

Certain known genetic disorders are associated with an increased risk for autism, including Fragile X syndrome, tuberous sclerosis — each of which results from a mutation in a single, but different, gene.

Recessive Genetic Disease

If both partners are carriers, they have a 25% risk of having an affected child with a recessive genetic disease and a 50% that the child will be a carrier like the parents.

Chances of a child inheriting an autosomal recessive disorder are:

  • 25%. Here, the child will inherit two changed mutated genes, one from each parent
  • 50%. The child will be a carrier like the parents, but without any symptoms. They will have inherited one normal gene and one mutated gene
  • 50%. The child will not inherit the defected gene with a change from either parent. This means that the child will not be a carrier and will not be affected by the disorder.

In an X-linked recessive disorder, a carrier mother has a 25% chance of having an affected male child in each pregnancy. 

  • There is a 50% chance that the child is a male or female who is healthy with a normal copy of a particular gene
  • There is a 25% chance that it is a healthy carrier female child or a mildly affected female child
  • There is a 25% chance that it is an affected male with only one mutated copy of the gene

The LIV Lifeline

Our LIV Fertility Center comprises of board-certified reproductive endocrinology and infertility specialists who are committed to educating patients on several fertility problems, including genetics and illness. 

At the LIV Fertility Center, intended parents with a history of inherited cancers can rely on our state-of-the-art genetic testing via preimplantation genetic screening (PGS) to eliminate genetic diseases from children for generations to come.

You are more likely to make an informed decision as a parent if you go through carrier screening. This will allow you to make the right choices regarding family planning. 

Carrier screening allows couples to:

  • Use PGS to plan their pregnancy 
  • Consider other viable options such as using sperm or egg donors 
  • Schedule for prenatal diagnosis during pregnancy

Many different health issues can affect a couple’s ability to get pregnant. Our mission in Puerto Vallarta is to provide sophisticated care for the most extensive variety of medical conditions that are associated with infertility.

Contact LIV Fertility

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